Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.
Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).
Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.
Generally arrives in northernmost breeding areas in March-April, departs September-November (Bent 1937). Large numbers pass through Panama late February-early April and October-November (Ridgely and Gwynne 1989). Migrants and residents coexist in Panama from Novemnber to April (Smith 1980). Large migratory flocks pass through Costa Rica, mainly over Caribbean lowlands, in both fall (September-October) and spring (late January to mid-May (Stiles and Skutch 1989). Generally avoids crossing wide expanses of water. Has been described as nomadic, rather than migratory, in North America.
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