Roosts singly or in groups. Average distance between communal roost and feeding site was 8 km in Maryland/Pennsylvania (Coleman and Fraser 1987). Mean summer range of two known breeders was 6942 hectares; 90% of locations were within 10 kilometers of roost (Kirk and Mossman 1998). Roosts may be temporary (at a food source), seasonal (spring-fall), or permanent (peak numbers in early winter) (Palmer 1988). Human disturbance and canid predation may be significant causes of nest failure in the eastern U.S. (Coleman and Fraser 1989).
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