Laying peaks from late October to mid-December in Puerto Rico (Kepler 1978). In Baja California, hatching peaked at weeks 7, 12, 17.5, and 23.3 of the calendar year (Carmona et al. 1995, Wilson Bulletin 107:328-337). Low reproductive rate. Clutch size usually is 1. Incubation, by both sexes, lasts 50 days or more. Young initially are tended by both sexes, first fly at about 150-210 days. First breeding may occur at age of at least 5-7 years. In Baja California, 46% of eggs or chicks died at some stage of development (Carmona et al. 1995, loc. cit.).