Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDS: in North America locally from Maine and Rhode Island (recorded also in Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick; McAlpine et al. 1988) south to Florida, and west on the Gulf Coast to Louisiana, also inland, at least causally, in Arkansas (Blytheville). Major concentration of breeding in the U.S. is in southern New Jersey, Delaware Bay, and the lower coasts of the Delmarva Peninsula (Spendelow and Patton 1988); apparently the breeding range has been shifting northward on the Atlantic coast during the past few decades (Byrd and Johnston 1991). Breeds also in northwestern Costa Rica; Greater Antilles (Hispaniola, Cuba, and Puerto Rico); northern Venezuela; and widely in the Old World. NORTHERN WINTER: north to southern Louisiana, northern Florida; also regularly in eastern North Carolina and Virginia), sometimes in New Jersey; south through the breeding range and in the Old World. In the U.S., the highest winter densities occur in peninsular Florida (Root 1988). Wanders outside usual range.
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