Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Worldwide in subtropical and warm temperate oceans, including the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. In the Pacific Ocean, ranges from British Columbia south to Chile and out to 135 degrees west longitude; there are few records from the Gulf of California; documented from New Caledonia, New Zealand, and Japanese waters in the western Pacific, and there are records from north of Hawaii; range may extend entirely across the tropical and temperate North Pacific; records from the western Atlantic range from at least Florida to Newfoundland and in the eastern Atlantic from northern Europe to the west coast of Africa (Heyning and Perrin 1994). Abundant in waters of eastern North America, ranging north in large numbers to near Nova Scotia and Newfoundland in summer; otherwise, generally ranges from Gulf of Maine to Chesapeake Bay area (Gaskin 1992). Penetrates tropical zone where relatively cool waters keep surface temperature between about 15 to 26 C (Mead and Brownell, in Wilson and Reeder 1993, Gaskin 1992).
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