Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.
Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).
Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.
Birds breeding in Greenland and Newfoundland probably remain in the wstern Atlantic region (Brown 1985). Returns to breeding grounds in Maine in March (Cowger 1976), in Newfoundland around mid-April (Harris and Birkhead 1985), in Greenland first half of May.