Comments: In Greenland, egg-collecting (and less importantly hunting and deaths in salmon gill nets) may be significant threats. Many drown in surface-set and bottom-set gill nets in the fishery off Newfoundland; mortality acute during period when capelin form dense spawning schools inshore (Piatt and Nettleship 1985). Affected by hunting in Newfoundland and Gulf of St. Lawrence; breeding success has been reduced in some areas due to competition with fisheries for common food resource (e.g., capelin) and to increased predation and kleptoparasitism by large gulls (Brown and Nettleship 1984). On islands off Labrador, colonizing arctic foxes preyed heavily on puffins and reduced their breeding success (Birkhead and Nettleship 1995).
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