Comments: Global population 3.8-8.2 million, about half of which breed in Iceland (Nettleship and Evans 1985). North American population 350,000-400,000 breeding pairs (Rodway et al. 1996, Chardine 1999). Censuses in the 1970s and early 1980s yielded an estimate of about 365,000 breeding pairs in Canada/New England, mostly along the coasts of southeastern Newfoundland and Labrador; about 1100 pairs, Nova Scotia to Maine (population declined in late 1970s-early 1980s, Evans and Nettleship 1985). As of 1985, about 300 were breeding in Maine (Spendelow and Patton 1988). See Evans (1984) for population data from Greenland. Total population of F. A. GRAABE (European subspecies) estimated to be 901,000 (Lloyd et al. 1991).