Comments: This species is vulnerable to food shortages, predation (including egg predation by humans), pollution, and habitat degradation and loss (Howes and Montevecchi 1993). Disturbance at colony sites could cause desertion or declines (Howes and Montevecchi 1993), but terns have also shown potential for habituation to human activity under certain conditions. Growing gull populations have displaced terns from breeding habitat in some parts of Atlantic Canada and increased predation on young and eggs (Lock 1992). Climatic warming could decrease abundance or change distribution of ice-associated prey species such as the Arctic cod.
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