Global Range: Occurs in three distinct breeding populations (stocks) in North Atlantic: White Sea (East Ice) stock, Jan Mayen (West Ice) stock, and northwest Atlantic (Newfoundland) stock; breeders in Gulf of St. Lawrence are included in the Newfoundland stock, but possibly they comprise a separate stock. Adults of northwest Atlantic stock summer mainly in High Arctic and around Greenland, winter and breed off Labrador, Newfoundland, and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence; most immatures overwinter at the Front off southern Labrador, though some remain at high latitudes. Occurrences in the northern Gulf of Maine region increased greatly during the 1990s (McAlpine et al. 1999).
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