Comments: Habitat includes semi-open areas in moist woodlands, bogs with scattered trees, willow and alder thickets, and areas with similar vegatation structure. Winter habitats include semi-open or lightly wooded areas, such as the canopy, openings, and edges of forests, second growth, coffee plantations, brushy fields, and yards (Stiles and Skutch 1989). Nests are on the ground at the bases of shrubs (e.g., willows in the Sierra Nevada) or saplings or under cover of ground vegetation; nests may be above ground in thick vegetation in coastal California and Oregon. Individuals often return to the nesting areas used the previous year (Stewart et al. 1978).