Summer home range varies greatly, 142-1280 acres (Ables 1969); winter ranges more extensive; home range diameter usually 2-4 km, up to 8 km or more if food scarce (see Caire et al. 1989). Social groups in a city in England exhibited drifting territoriality; ranges averaged about 40 ha (Doncaster and MacDonald 1991). In Japan, spring-summer home range was 357-631 ha; foxes moved about 6 km each night in going from village to village (Cavallini, 1992, J. Mamm. 73:321-325). Averages one family (about 7 foxes) per 4 sq miles (Baker 1983). May be excluded by coyote from some areas of otherwise suitable habitat.