Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Breeding range extends from North Dakota, eastern Saskatchewan (probably), and southern Manitoba eastward across southern Canada and the northern United States to New Brunswick and central Maine, and south to central Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, northern Alabama, northern Georgia, northwestern South Carolina, western North Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland (AOU 1998). During the northern winter, the range extends from Panama (rarely) and Colombia south, east of the Andes, through eastern Ecuador and Peru and western Brazil to northwestern Bolivia (Stiles and Skutch 1989, AOU 1998); apparently mainly in upper Amazonia (Ridgely and Tudor 1989). Recently recorded in Amazonia of Brazil (Stotz et al. 1992). Scarlet tanagers migrate primarily through the south-central and southeastern United States, Middle America, and the West Indies.