NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Large breeding range in eastern North America; numerous occurrences; stable population; loss/fragmentation of mature forest is a potential threat to population stability.
Other Considerations: ALABAMA: Found in the northeastern portion of the state, from Tuscaloosa northward. ARKANSAS: Common summer resident in extensive upland woods. Chiefly found in the Ozarks and Ouachitas and in smaller numbers elsewhere. Favors higher elevations (James and Neal 1986). CONNECTICUT: Widely distributed throughout the state. DELAWARE: No reply for this state. GEORGIA: No specific information located. ILLINOIS: Common summer resident statewide. Populations speculated to be decreasing. INDIANA: Fairly common summer resident, statewide; most abundant in the northern third of state. Elsewhere, especially south, appears to be uncommon (Mumford and Keller 1984). IOWA: Scattered distribution throughout the state; less common in northwest regions. KANSAS: An uncommon transient and rare nesting species in eastern third of state. Rare to casual westward (Thompson and Ely 1992). KENTUCKY: Uncommon to common summer resident. Breeds in mature deciduous forests throughout the state; most numerous on the Cumberland Plateau and Mountains; less numerous and more local to the west. MAINE: Uncommon, though regular in most of western Maine. Perhaps only occasional to rare in north and east sections (Palmer 1949). MARYLAND: Breeds throughout the state. MASSACHUSETTS: No reply from this state. MICHIGAN: Relatively evenly distributed throughout the state in deciduous woods (Brewer et al. 1991). MINNESOTA: Regular migrant and summer resident. Most numerous in central, east-central, and southeast regions. Least numerous and absent over wide areas in south central and southwestern regions, and in the Red River Valley of the northwestern region (Janssen 1987). MISSISSIPPI: No specific information located. MISSOURI: Found statewide. Indications of population increase 4% annually from Breeding Bird Survey data. NEBRASKA: Breeds locally in eastern regions (Johnsgard 1979). NEW HAMPSHIRE: Fairly common breeder throughout the state. NEW JERSEY: Common migrant and summer resident throughout the state. Probably more common as a breeder in north and central regions than in the southern region. Population is stable. NEW YORK: Common breeder in a variety of forest types. Absent from large urban areas and tracts of mountain spruce. NORTH CAROLINA: Found in the mountains, piedmont, and northwest half of the Coastal Plain. Absent as a breeder near the coast and in some southeastern counties. Population believed to be increasing and distribution expanding eastward. NORTH DAKOTA: Common in the east and central portions; uncommon to rare elsewhere. OHIO: Population stable with indications of increase. Widely distributed throughout the state; more numerous along the entire Allegheney Plateau. OKLAHOMA: No specific information located. PENNSYLVANIA: Common to abundant breeder in east-central regions. In southeast, found scarce and rather local. Breeding Bird Survey data indicate increases in populations (Brauning 1992). RHODE ISLAND: Common summer resident. Widespread in interior portions; noticeably uncommon in coastal lowland regions. Also found locally on larger islands (Narragansett Bay, Conanicut Island). Stable population. SOUTH CAROLINA: Accidental breeder on the coastal plain; probably uncommon in the lower piedmont; fairly common in upper piedmont and mountains. SOUTH DAKOTA: Uncommon summer resident in the east, most often seen in migration; rare migrant and possible breeder in the west. TENNESSEE: Locally distributed statewide. VERMONT: Thinly, but widely distributed through deciduous and mixed woodlands of the state. In the past 50 years, indications of population increases are noted (Laughlin and Kibbe 1985). VIRGINIA: No significant population changes. Common breeder in mature deciduous forests throughout the state. WEST VIRGINIA: Fairly common to common summer resident throughout the state in forested areas. Uncommon in the southwest near Huntington, farther east numbers increase (Hall 1983). WISCONSIN: Fairly common summer resident statewide. Areas with fewer woodlots (south and east counties) may have lower populations. Possible population declines may be attributed to agricultural conversion of forests (Robbins 1991). MANITOBA: During the breeding season, found in a number of locations in the southern province in suitable habitat. All confirmed breeding records have taken place in the southeastern province, except for Riding Mountain National Park records in the southwest. NEW BRUNSWICK: Found mostly in interior valleys with no evidence or reason for declines. NOVA SCOTIA: Very patchy occurrences in rich hardwood habitats; especially north central province. Near absent on Atlantic Slope and Cape Breton Island (Erskine 1992). ONTARIO: Breeds in upland fairly mature deciduous and mixed forests in Carolinian and Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Forest Zones. Historical information indicates stable population trends with some localized declines (Cadman et al. 1987). QUEBEC: No specific information located. SASKATCHEWAN: Possible breeding at Madge Lake and Nipawin.