Stewardship Overview: Populations across the breeding range have shown decreases of 3.0 percent per year from 1966-1998, according to the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS). Although more study needs to be done, loss of breeding habitat appears to be a factor in this decline. Management should include protection of existing habitat and vegetative manipulation to create early and mixed-successional stages. Monitoring by the BBS should continue, along with studies to determine relationships between habitat change over time and reproductive success. Better understanding of problems in wintering areas and (for western populations) important molt-migration areas in desert habitats of southeastern Arizona and northwestern Mexico should also be sought.
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