Comments: HABITAT: Breeding habitat loss is generally considered to be the greatest threat (Muehter 1998, Lowther et al. 1999); this is especially well documented along the Atlantic coast (Meyers, pers. comm.).
PET TRADE: Capture of individual birds for sale in the pet trade is apparently a significant concern on the wintering grounds in Central America (Muehter 1998).
PARASITISM: Brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism is known from both western and eastern populations. Thirteen 13 of 45 nests parasitized in Oklahoma (Parmalee 1959), 4 of 60 nests parasitized in Texas in an area where extensive cowbird removal had been carried out (Barber and Martin 1997), and 8 percent of an unspecified number of nests on barrier islands in Georgia (Meyers et al. 1999). Whether or not brood parasitism is a significant factor in population declines is not known.
PREDATION: Predators are likely similar to those of other small passerines and do not seem to be an unusual threat (Lowther et al. 1999).