Preserve Selection and Design Considerations: In a study in a northwestern California Douglas-fir forest, western flycatcher (Empidonax difficilis) avoided edges, yet did not respond negatively to forest fragmentation. Positive association to the proximity and length of clearcut edges and positively correlated with stands that were more insular, or contained more clearcuts and total edge (Rosenberg and Raphael 1986).
Management Requirements: Prefers old forests over younger stands (Raphael et al. 1988, Carey et al. 1991, Manuwal 1991). In an Oregon Cascades study, the species favored old stands and areas with decayed logs, fern and deciduous shrub cover, western hemlocks (Tsuga heterophylla) and very large western redcedar (Thuja plicata); the authors suggested that older stands probably best meet the species need for open flying space for feeding (Gilbert and Allwine 1991). In mature, unmanaged forest stands, average abundances are slightly higher along streamsides than in upslope stands, but not significantly so (McGarigal and McComb 1992).