Nonbreeding: often gathers in large roosts. Often occurs in large mixed flocks with black-birds, cowbirds, and grackles (in summer and fall in northeastern U.S., Caccamise et al. 1983).
Commonly usurps the nest sites of native cavity-nesting birds (e.g., bluebirds, woodpeckers). However, an examination of Christmas Bird Count and Breeding Bird Survey data found that few, if any, native species have showed significant declines that could be attributed to starling competition. Only sapsuckers exhibited declines potentially attributable to starlings that were not countered by other data (Koenig 2003).
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