Clutch size 4-9 (usually 5-7). Incubation by both sexes in turn, 12-15 days. Altricial, downy nestlings fed by parents for 20-22 days (Harrison 1978). One to 3 broods per year. Female may lay egg in nest of another starling. Polygyny and communal breeding have been documented (see Pinxton et al., 1994, Auk 111:482-486).