Sullivan and de Garine (in press): moves more than 20 m away from home reef 65 percent of time; home range size is greater than 500 square meters. Beaumariage and Bullock (1976): when collected at one reef and transported to another in close proximity, individuals returned to original reef. Bardach (1958): show strong homing tendencies.
Tends to be site-specific but has a larger home range than do smaller grouper species (Bardach 1958, Beaumariage and Bullock 1976, Sullivan and de Garine 1990, Beets and Hixon 1994, Sluka and Sullivan 1996a). Randall (1961) reported that some move distances of 1-10 miles after tagging.
May suffer high post-settlement predation (Beets and Hixon 1994). Sea water temperature has pronounced and direct effects on feeding and growth of juveniles; timing of spawning in relation to seasonally changing temperature may be important in determining juvenile growth rates, vulnerability to predation, and, hence, year-class strength (Ellis et al. 1997).
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