Biological Research Needs: More research on population dynamics and reproductive biology is needed. A greater understanding of reproductive biology would greatly facilitate stock management. There is a need to know (1) whether most annual reproduction occurs at spawning aggregations and (2) the geographic locations and durations of significant aggregations. There is also a need to know how aggregation fishing is likely to affect courtship or spawning behavior. Relatively little is known concerning the minimum size of sexual maturation relative to the size of entry into the fishery. It is also not known to what extent individuals recruit locally or from larvae from up-current and/or off-island locations. Little is known concerning the characteristics of critical juvenile habitat nor of the principal settlement periods (Sadovy 1990).