Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.
Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).
Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.
Certain stocks along the Atlantic coast north of Cape Hatteras may make extensive migrations along the coast, moving north in spring and south in fall (extent of migration varies among individuals and populations). Individuals may ascend rivers as far as 200 miles (320 km) during spawning migrations (usually only 25 miles [40 km] or less). Populations along the South Atlantic coast of the U.S. apparently do not make extensive coastal migrations that are typical of stocks in the Middle and North Atlantic regions. See Hill et al. (1989).
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