Global Range: (Unknown) Historical range reportedly included marine habitats in parts of the eastern Pacific Ocean, western and eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea, Indo-Pacific, and Red Sea, and freshwater habitats in North, Central, and South America, Africa, and India (NMFS 2000). However, reports of this species from outside the Atlantic may be based on misidentifications of other pristids (NMFS 2001, 2003). Historical distribution in the western Atlantic Ocean extended from North Carolina (rarely New York), Bermuda, and the northern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil (Robins and Ray 1986); probably not a permanent resident north of Florida (NMFS 2000); prior to around 1960, commonly occurred as far north as the Gulf of Mexico and North Carolina (NMFS 2003). Current distribution is centered on Everglades National Park, including Florida Bay (NMFS 2001, 2003). The depleted U.S. population may be the largest population in the western Atlantic (NMFS 2001). In fact, a NMFS review team was unable to find any recent verifiable records of populations outside of the United States (NMFS 2001, 2003).