Degree of Threat: C : Not very threatened throughout its range, communities often provide natural resources that when exploited alter the composition and structure over the short-term, or communities are self-protecting because they are unsuitable for other uses
Comments: Principal threat is fishing, although habitat degradation in coastal waters and nursery areas may affect juveniles. Generally fished wherever it exists; regularly caught in substantial amounts (Compagno 1990). Caught with hook-and-line, gill nets, and trawls for meat, fishmeal, liver oil, fins, and hide. Often caught by sport anglers and was formerly targeted by fishermen in Australia and South Africa. Much of catch is relatively minor bycatch for more fecund teleosts. Mostly caught as bycatch in Japanese tuna longline vessels (Taniuchi 1990).