NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Wide, nearly cosmopolitan distribution in subtropical and warm temperate oceans; number of extant occurrences and global abundance are not well documented; no known protected occurrences and no specific fisheries protection afforded; considered extremely susceptible to overfishing due to based on life history characteristics, particularly very low reproductive output.
Other Considerations: Slow growth (Pratt and Casey 1987, Branstetter 1990), delayed reproduction, and very low reproductive output (Compagno 1990) make this species vulnerable to overexploitation.
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