Habitat Type: Freshwater
Comments: Ammocoetes inhabit shallow backwater and eddy areas along edges of streams in mud, silt and sand (Lee et al. 1980). In southern California, adults apparently spend approximately one year in fresh water prior to spawning (Chase 2001). Adults spawn in runs and riffles in rock-, sand-, or gravel-bottomed clear streams, in shallow depressions, or crude nests, 2 inches deep and 4-5 inches in diameter, at the heads of riffles (Wydoski and Whitney 1979). Lake populations in British Columbia spawn at creek mouths, sometimes move up to a few 100 m up creek (Beamish 1987). Goose Lake, California, population spawns in gravel riffles of tributary streams, far enough upstream such that there is adequate ammocoete habitat (muddy backwaters) downstream from the breeding area (Moyle et al. 1989).