Comments: Habitat is a complex issue for this species. In general breeding areas are virtually all patches of milkweed in North America and some other regions. The critical conservation feature for North American populations is the overwintering habitats, which are certain high altitude Mexican conifer forests or coastal California conifer or Eucalyptus groves as identified in literature. It appears virtually all North American monarchs overwinter in one of these two areas. Lethal cold would preclude successful overwintering in places like the Gulf Coast and much of Florida some years and it appears thse are not major wintering regions as used to be assumed. In addition certain major coastal migratory stopovers may be important conservation sites especially those in along Delaware Bay in New Jersey including Cape May where adults may holdover for several days awaiting suitable conditions for crossing the Bay. There are major, but probably less important, roosting sites farther north such as east of New Haven and probably others farther south perhaps even as far as Cuba. Coastal regions are important flyways and so nectar (wild or in gardens) is an important reseource in such places. In places like Hawaii and some others the species simply breeds year round and is not really migratory.