Spawns in fall (late October and early November in Maine). Eggs hatch in early spring. Young spend 1-3 years in stream rearing habitat, go to sea (in spring), return to spawn after 1-4 winters at sea (most from New England spend two years at sea). Adults may spawn in more than one year. In Europe, the majority of the smallest adults spawned annually, the largest biennially (Jonsson et al. (1991). Apparently, severe post-spawning mortality is normal in natural habitats, but survivorship generally is higher in artificially "reconditioned" kelts or in lake-locked populations (Stearley 1992).