Global Range: North Atlantic, south to Portugal in the east, south to Connecticut and Housatonic rivers in the west (possibly formerly to Delaware); north to Ungava Bay (northern Quebec) and to the Nastapoka River in eastern Hudson Bay (Morin 1991); inland in North America to Lake Ontario, where now extirpated; widely stocked in lakes but seldom successfully. A spawning population, evidently derived from feral adults used for aquaculture, appears to be established in the Tsitika River in British Columbia, and freshwater and marine recoveries are well documented in Alaska (Volpe et al. 2000). Locally common, but depleted or extirpated from western and southern parts of range (Page and Burr 1991). The only remaining populations that are believed to consist, at least in part, of native fishes in U.S. rivers occur in Maine: Dennys, Machias, East Machias, Narraguagus, Pleasant, Ducktrap, and Sheepscot rivers (Colligan and Nickerson 1996); a few populations have been partially restored through hatchery production (Federal Register, 20 January 1994).
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