Northern elephant seals are important as predators on octopus, squid, small sharks, skates, and fish. In this way they impact the populations of these animals. They are also important as food for animals which prey on them, such as Carcharodon carcharias and Orca orcinus. (Bonner, 1990; Le Boeuf et al., 2000)
- Bonner, W. 1990. The Natural History of Seals. New York, NY: Facts On File, Inc..
- Le Boeuf, B., D. Crocker, D. Costa, S. Blackwell, P. Webb. 2000. Foraging ecology of northern elephant seals. Ecological Monographs, 70 (3): 353-382.