Distribution and adaptation
In northern New England it is found mainly on shallow till soils that average about 18 inches deep to a compact layer. At higher elevations it often grows in organic soils overlying rocks. On poorly drained soils, lack of aeration limits its growth. In the northern part of its range, red spruce grows at elevations from near sea level to about 4,500 feet. In the southern Appalachians it is limited to slopes and mountain tops above 3,500 feet in West Virginia and above 4,500 feet in Tennessee and North Carolina.
Unfortunately, red spruce is showing damage from air pollution throughout its range, particularly at the higher elevations.
For a current distribution map, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Website.
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