Although native to Europe, the snailcase bagworm (parthogenetic form) was introduced to the western United States in the 1940s, and probably a second introduction from Europe populated the eastern United States in the 1960s. They are polyphagous and feed on an extensive range of host plants. Literature accounts have cited some damage of crops including, legumes, fruit trees, ornamental plants, douglas fir, alfalfa, barley, corn, cruciferous vegetables, sweet clover, and ornamental flower plants, however economic damage is minimal. When the larvae is mature and ready to pupate, it climbs upwards to find a good spot upon which to cement itself using its larval silk, often settling on the walls of houses. At this phase it is very difficult to remove the casing, and this presents a nuisance to humans.
(Jacobs 2003; Wheeler and Hoebeck 1988; Cranshaw 2007; Riands et al. 2009; Wikipedia 2011)
- Cranshaw, W.S. 2007. Snailcase Bagworm. Colorado State University Extension. Retrieved October 11, 2011 from ">http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/insect/05580.html"> http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/insect/05580.html
- Davis DR. 1964. Bagworm moths of the Western Hemisphere. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 244:1–233
- Jacobs, S.B. 2003. Snailcase Bagworm Apterona helix (Siebold) Entomological Notes. Department of Entomology. Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences, Cooperative Extension. NP-13. Retrieved October 11, 2011 from ">http://ento.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/snailcase-bagworm"> http://ento.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/snailcase-bagworm
- Rhainds, M., D.R. Davis, and P.W. Price. 2009. Bionomics of Bagworms (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Annu. Rev. Entomol. 2009. 54:209–26. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ento.54.110807.090448
- Wheeler Jr., A. G. and E. R. Hoebek, 1988. Apterona helix (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) a palearctic bagworm moth in North America: New distribution records, seasonal history, and host plants. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 90(1). pp. 20-27.
- Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 25 June 2011. "Apterona helicoidella”. Retrieved October 10, 2011 from ">http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Apterona_helicoidella&oldid=436220813"> http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Apterona_helicoidella&oldid=436220813
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