The ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) is an important pollinator because it feeds on the nectar of over 30 plant species and transfers pollen that winds up on its wings and bill. These birds are particularly attracted to red, long, tubular flowers with dilute nectar. One plant, the trumpet creeper (Campsis radicans), appears to have co-evolved with the ruby-throated hummingbird and depends upon it to pollinate its flowers. The hummingbird uses its long, probe-like bill to extract nectar from the orange-red, tubular flowers of this woodland vine. The flower's long tube actually excludes most bees and butterflies from feeding on it and, subsequently, from pollinating the plant. This hummingbird also pollinates wild bergamot (Monarda fisulosa), bee balm (Monarda spp.), spotted jewelweed (Impatiens capensis), trumpet honeysuckle (Lonicera sempervirens), and cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis).
- Trumpet Creepers and Hummingbird Bills (Bill Hilton, Jr. In: The Piedmont Naturalist, Vol. I, 1986, Hilton Pond Press)
- Wildlife Notes: Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Chuck Fergus, Pennsylvania Game Commission)
- Wildlife Profile: Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) (Mark Johns, North Carolina Wesleyan College)
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