Hornfaced bees are solitary nesters; each female bee mates, builds a nest, and lays eggs. These bees are gregarious, preferring to nest in groups. Hornfaced bees emerge in early spring, with males emerging a few days before females. The bees mate and then females begin building nests and laying eggs. Adults die in late spring or early summer, after being active for about four to eight weeks. Larvae hatch in the fall, spin cocoons, turn into pupae, and then adult bees. The adult bees become dormant and remain so until they emerge in early spring.
- Basic Biology and Management of the Japanese Hornfaced Bee (Mid-Atlantic Apicultural Research and Extension Consortium)
- Management of Hornfaced Bees for Orchard Pollination (Suzanne W. T. Batra, PollinatorParadise.com, March 1997)
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