Brachycephalus ephippium is a small frog with adults ranging from 12.5 mm to 19.7 mm in snout-vent length. Although tiny, it has a robust body, with short legs. The skin color is bright yellow to orange. The iris is completely black. Digit number is reduced, with three fingers and three functional toes. Phalanges are also reduced, in both number and size, so that fingers and toes are both shorter and smaller. The terminal phalanges are T-shaped. A dermal bony shield is present and ossified dorsal to the backbone. No teeth are present on the maxillary or premaxillaries. (Pombal, 2003).
- Pombal, J. P. Jr., Sazima, I., and Haddad, C. F. B. (1994). ''Breeding behavior of the Pumpkin Toadlet, Brachycephalus ephippium (Brachycephalidae).'' Journal of Herpetology, 28, 516-519.
- Pombal, J. P., Jr. (2003). ''Pumpkin toadlet, Brachycephalus ephippium.'' Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Volume 6, Amphibians. 2nd edition. M. Hutchins, W. E. Duellman, and N. Schlager, eds., Gale Group, Farmington Hills, Michigan.
- Sebben, A., Schwartz, C.A., Valente, D., and Mendes, E.G.A. (1986). ''Tetrodotoxin-like substance found in the Brazilian frog Brachycephalus ephippium.'' Toxicon, 24, 799-806.