The Flatwoods salamander (Ambystoma cingulatum) was first described by Cope in 1868 but has remained rare in museum collections to this day. This species is a small, slender species of Ambystoma with a light gray reticulate or frosted pattern on a dark gray or black dorsum (Petranka 1998), though gulf coast populations often have a brownish gray reticulate pattern on the dorsum. The venter is typically dark gray with a light gray flecking or spotting pattern present. Adults may reach lengths of 13.5cm in total length (TL) (Palis 1996) with an average of 15 costal grooves in a range of 13-16. Larvae develop a yellow - gold vertebral stripe along the length of the body shortly after hatching. Hatchlings are identified by their uniformly dark brown dorsal patterning and their pale brown venter. Hatchlings typically measure 7.5-11.5 mm SVL and 10-19 mm TL (Anderson and Williamson 1976; Palis 1995).
- Petranka, J. W. (1998). Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.
- Anderson, J. D., and Williamson, G. K. (1976). ''Terrestrial mode of reproduction in Ambystoma cingulatum.'' Herpetologica, 32, 214-221.
- Means, D. B., Palis, J. G., and Baggett, M. (1996). ''Effects of slash pine silviculture on a Florida population of Flatwoods Salamander.'' Conservation Biology, 10(2), 426-437.
- Palis, J.G. (1995). ''Larval growth, development, and metamorphosis of Ambystoma cingulatum on the Gulf Coastal Plain of Florida.'' The Florida Scientist, 58(44), 352-358.
- Palis, J.G. (1996). ''Flatwoods Salamander (Ambystoma cingulatum Cope). Element stewardship abstract.'' Natural Areas Resource Journal, 16, 49-54.
- Ware, S.C., Frost, C. and Doerr, P.D. (1993). ''Southern mixed hardwood forest: the former longleaf pine forest.'' Biodiversity of the Southeastern United States. W.H.Martin, S.G. Boyce, and A.C. Echternacht, eds., John Wiley and Sons, New York, 447-493.