Gymnodinium catenatum was first reported from California but now has a very wide distribution including Europe, Australia and Japan.
- Hallegraeff GM and Hara Y (2003) Taxnomy of harmful marine raphidophytes. In: Hallegraeff GM, Anderson DM, Cembella AD. Manual on harmful microalgae. UNESCO Publishing
- Tomas C ed. (1996) Identifying marine diatoms and dinoflagellates. pp 598. Academic Press Ltd. London
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