Animals that feed on sugar maple seeds, buds, twigs, and leaves include white-tailed deer, moose, snowshoe hare, red, gray, and flying squirrels, and numerous lepidopteran larvae and aphids. Porcupines consume the bark and can girdle the upper stem. Songbirds and woodpeckers, and cavity nesters nest in sugar maple. The flowers appear to be wind-pollinated, but the early-produced pollen is important for Apis mellifera (honeybees) and other insects.
- FIA. 2011. Current U.S. forest data and maps. Forest Inventory and Analysis Program, U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Retrieved September 12, 2011 from http://fia.fs.fed.us/.
- MapleInfo.org. 2011. “Birdseye in sugar maple.” State of Vermont, Department of Forests, Parks, and Recreation. Retrieved on September 12, 2011, from http://www.mapleinfo.org/htm/bird.cfm.
- Potter-Witter, K., and J. T. Lacksen. 1993. The Status of the Maple-Birch Forest Type in Michigan. Michigan State University, Department of Forestry Michigan State University. Research Report 533. May 1993. http://www.for.msu.edu/extension/ExtDocs/mplebrch.htm.
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