Monarch butterflies have a wingspan of 3-4 1/2 inches (75-114 mm). The male is bright orange and has a black scent patch in the middle of the upper hind wing. The female is dull orange or brown with more thickly scaled black veins. The underside of the hind wing is light orange with black veins and a marginal black border with two rows of white spots. The upper front wing has a black apex (tip) with white spots. The sub-apex has light orange spots on a dark background. The underside of the front wing has white spots and yellow ovals in the outer portion.
- Opler, P. A. and A. Bartlett Wright. 1999. Western Butterflies. Peterson Field Guides. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, New York.
- Stewart, B., P. Brodkin, and H. Brodkin. 2001. Butterflies of Arizona. A Photographic Guide. West Coast Lady Press, Arcata, CA.
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