<p>The oldest wild cardinal banded by researchers lived at least 15 years and 9 months. Annual survival rates for adult northern cardinals have been estimated at 60 to 65%.<span> (Halkin and Linville, 1999)</span></p>
Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology
Kari Kirschbaum, Animal Diversity Web Staff
Jonathan Crane, University of Michigan
Dewey, T., J. Crane and K. Kirschbaum. 2001. "Cardinalis cardinalis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed August 20, 2011 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cardinalis_cardinalis.html.