The manakin species are very interesting in their family life. Long-tailed Manakin males form a long-term partnership duo or trio. Together they sing in synchrony and, for any female who is attracted by their singing, perform a complex coordinated courtship dance. If she mates, only the alpha male inseminates her. Among many displaying male partnerships in a locality (a dispersed lek), only one or a very few males may account for the vast majority of matings in a given breeding season. As in other lekking species, the female then builds the nest and raises the young without involvement by males.
- BirdLife International 2004. Chiroxiphia linearis. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 25 July 2007.
- ^ Nadkarni, Nalini. Birds of Monteverde: "A case of male cooperation"