<p>The average lifespan of wild clouded leopards is estimated to be 11 years. Individuals in zoos have been recorded living up to 17 years, with the average between 13 and 15 years. For wild clouded leopards, hunting or habitat destruction by humans limits lifespan. Clouded leopards also share parts of their geographic range with larger predators that kill potential competitors, such as <span class="taxon"><em>Panthera tigris</em></span> or <span class="taxon"><em>Panthera pardus</em></span>. Clouded leopards may spend a significant amount of time in trees for this reason. Studies have not been conducted regarding diseases that may limit the lifespan of clouded leopards. The number of deaths by other clouded leopards also remains unknown.<span> (Beacham and Beltz, 1998; IUCN, 1996; Sunquist and Sunquist, 2002)</span></p>
- Beacham, W., K. Beltz. 1998. Beacham's Guide to International Endangered Species, Vol. 2. Osprey, Florida: Beacham Publishing Corp..
- Sunquist, M., F. Sunquist. 2002. Wild Cats of the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.