Populus nigra the black or water poplar is Britain’s rarest native timber tree found alongside waterways in the UK.The black poplar is also found in Southern, Central and East Europe, North Africa and eastwards to Central Asia the Black or Water Poplar is almost certainly native to lowland England.Black poplar trees can live for over 250 years and there are historical records of trees approaching 300 years of age (White, 1993). A virulent disease Poplar scab has hit Populus nigra and generally takes around 3 years to kill a tree. The infection is caused by a fungal disease called Venturia populina, or its asexual stage Pollaccia elegans. A shortage of male trees and a changes in conditions necessary for germination and early establishment have also made natural sexual regeneration is extremely uncommon.Nationally is no special legislation to protect this species. The concerns over increasing threats and ongoing decline mean however that many local Biodiversity Action Plans have now adopted this species for targeted conservation.