Threats & Conservation: Unlike the related red knot, Calidris canutus rufa, populations of the semipalmated sandpiper are strong and no special status has been issued for the species. However, C. pusilla is protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, which prohibits the harassment, capture, kill and/or possession of listed migratory species (e.g. USFWS 2010). In addition, further conservation efforts by The Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network are ongoing through the protection of key nesting and stopover sites (Audubon 2010).
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- Kale II, HW & DS Maehr. 1990. Florida's Birds. Pineapple Press. Sarasota, FL. USA. 288 pp.
- Paulson, D. 2005. Shorebirds of North America: A Photographic Guide. Princeton Univ. Press. Princeton, NJ. USA. 361 pp.
- Peterson, RT. 1980. A Field Guide to the Birds: A Completely New Guide to All the Birds of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin. Boston, MA. USA. 384 pp.
- Terres, JK. 1980. The Audubon Society Encyclopedia of North American Birds. Alfred A. Knopf. New York. USA. 1109 pp.
- USFWS. 2010. Migratory Birds and Habitat Programs. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Online at http://www.fws.gov/laws/lawsdigest/migtrea.html (Date accessed: 08/10/2010).
- Audubon. 2010. Semipalmated Sandpiper. National Audubon Society. Online at http://web1.audubon.org/science/species/watchlist/profile.php?speciesCode=semsan (Date accessed: 08/10/2010).
- Collazo, JA, O'Harra, DA & CA Kelly. 2002. Accessible habitat for shorebirds: factors influencing its availability and conservation implications. Waterbirds 25: 13-24.
- McCurdy, DG, Forbes, MR & JS Boates. 1999. Evidence that the parasitic nematode Skrjabinoclava manipulates host Corophium behavior to increase transmission to the sandpiper, Calidris pusilla. Behav. Ecol. 19: 351-357.
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- Schneider, DC & BA Harrington. 1981. Timing of shorebird migration in relation to prey depletion. The Auk 98: 801-811.
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