The leaf and grass-lined nests of C. pusilla are typically built on wet arctic tundra near lakes or on grassy dunes at low elevations (Terres 1980). Eggs are yellow, tan or olive with cinnamon, hazel or chestnut colored spots (Terres 1980). Clutch size is generally four per nest, suggested by some studies as the maximum number of hatchlings that can be successfully protected by the parents (Safriel 1975). Both parents incubate the eggs until they hatch, a period of about 18-22 days, at which time the females usually vacate the nest and leave the males to brood the hatchlings (Safriel 1975; Terres 1980). Most young are capable of flight 14-19 days after hatching (Terres 1980).Voice: Semipalmated sandpipers emit a variety of calls, depending on the circumstance. During flight, vocal communication consists of a loud cherk, chert, or chut, which may be doubled. Breeding adults produce a "motorboat" song followed by buzzing. All calls are lower and lack the ee characteristic of the least and western sandpipers (Peterson 1980; Terres 1980; Paulson 2005). Temperature &
- Audubon. 2010. Semipalmated Sandpiper. National Audubon Society. Online at http://web1.audubon.org/science/species/watchlist/profile.php?speciesCode=semsan (Date accessed: 08/10/2010).
- Collazo, JA, O'Harra, DA & CA Kelly. 2002. Accessible habitat for shorebirds: factors influencing its availability and conservation implications. Waterbirds 25: 13-24.
- Farrand Jr., J (Ed.). 1983. The Audubon Society Master Guide to Birding Volume 1: Loons to Sandpipers. Alfred A. Knopf. New York. USA. 447 pp.
- Kale II, HW & DS Maehr. 1990. Florida's Birds. Pineapple Press. Sarasota, FL. USA. 288 pp.
- McCurdy, DG, Forbes, MR & JS Boates. 1999. Evidence that the parasitic nematode Skrjabinoclava manipulates host Corophium behavior to increase transmission to the sandpiper, Calidris pusilla. Behav. Ecol. 19: 351-357.
- Paulson, D. 2005. Shorebirds of North America: A Photographic Guide. Princeton Univ. Press. Princeton, NJ. USA. 361 pp.
- Peterson, RT. 1980. A Field Guide to the Birds: A Completely New Guide to All the Birds of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin. Boston, MA. USA. 384 pp.
- Safriel, UN. 1975. On the significance of clutch size in nidifugous birds. Ecology 56: 703-708.
- Schneider, DC & BA Harrington. 1981. Timing of shorebird migration in relation to prey depletion. The Auk 98: 801-811.
- Terres, JK. 1980. The Audubon Society Encyclopedia of North American Birds. Alfred A. Knopf. New York. USA. 1109 pp.
- USFWS. 2010. Migratory Birds and Habitat Programs. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Online at http://www.fws.gov/laws/lawsdigest/migtrea.html (Date accessed: 08/10/2010).
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