Like many shorebirds, C. pusilla is found throughout a large range extended by long seasonal migrations. Breeding occurs in the arctic from Alaska to the Atlantic Ocean, while wintering and migratory populations can be seen in several locations, including the east coast of the U.S. to southern Florida, eastern Mexico and the Caribbean south to Brazil (Terres 1980; Farrand 1983; Paulson 2005).Indian River Lagoon (India River Lagoon) Distribution: Little information is available on the distribution of the semipalmated sandpiper in the India River Lagoon, but surveys have been conducted at sites such as the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) (Collazo et al. 2002). Birds are found on tidal flats or salt marshes in the lagoon and in the swash zone of sandy beaches exposed to the coastal waters of the adjacent Atlantic Ocean (e.g. Terres 1980; Paulson 2005).
- Farrand Jr., J (Ed.). 1983. The Audubon Society Master Guide to Birding Volume 1: Loons to Sandpipers. Alfred A. Knopf. New York. USA. 447 pp.
- Kale II, HW & DS Maehr. 1990. Florida's Birds. Pineapple Press. Sarasota, FL. USA. 288 pp.
- Paulson, D. 2005. Shorebirds of North America: A Photographic Guide. Princeton Univ. Press. Princeton, NJ. USA. 361 pp.
- Peterson, RT. 1980. A Field Guide to the Birds: A Completely New Guide to All the Birds of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin. Boston, MA. USA. 384 pp.
- Terres, JK. 1980. The Audubon Society Encyclopedia of North American Birds. Alfred A. Knopf. New York. USA. 1109 pp.
- USFWS. 2010. Migratory Birds and Habitat Programs. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Online at http://www.fws.gov/laws/lawsdigest/migtrea.html (Date accessed: 08/10/2010).
- Audubon. 2010. Semipalmated Sandpiper. National Audubon Society. Online at http://web1.audubon.org/science/species/watchlist/profile.php?speciesCode=semsan (Date accessed: 08/10/2010).
- Collazo, JA, O'Harra, DA & CA Kelly. 2002. Accessible habitat for shorebirds: factors influencing its availability and conservation implications. Waterbirds 25: 13-24.
- McCurdy, DG, Forbes, MR & JS Boates. 1999. Evidence that the parasitic nematode Skrjabinoclava manipulates host Corophium behavior to increase transmission to the sandpiper, Calidris pusilla. Behav. Ecol. 19: 351-357.
- Safriel, UN. 1975. On the significance of clutch size in nidifugous birds. Ecology 56: 703-708.
- Schneider, DC & BA Harrington. 1981. Timing of shorebird migration in relation to prey depletion. The Auk 98: 801-811.
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