Nests of the red knot are typically built on dry, rocky arctic tundra at high elevations (Terres 1980). Birds construct nests around clumps of lichens and scant vegetation, and among rocky outcroppings on hills and ridges. Eggs are laid in June and July, about four per nest, light olive in color and spattered with brown markings. Both parents incubate the eggs until they hatch, a period of about 21-22 days, and most young are capable of flight approximately 18 days after hatching.Voice: Red knots emit a variety of calls, depending on the circumstance. During flight, vocal communication consists of a single croak, a honking knut or tlu tlu, or a mellow wah-quoit or cur-ret. Nesting males in the arctic breeding grounds are reported to call poor-me, while birds in flight over nesting areas emit a repeated whistle of pooo-lee pooo-lee pooo-lee followed by a couple of short trills (Peterson 1980; Terres 1980; Paulson 2005).
- Cremonte, F. 2004. Life cycle and geographic distribution of the gymnophallid Bartolius pierrei (Digenea) on the Patagonian coast, Argentina. J. Nat. Hist. 38: 1591-1604.
- Diaz, JI, Cremonte, F, Navone, GT & S Laurenti. 2005. Adults and larvae of Skrjabinocerca canutus n. sp. (Nematoda: Acuariidae) from Calidris canutus rufa (Aves: Scolopacidae) on the southern Southwest Atlantic coast of South America. Syst. Parasitol. 60: 113-123.
- Farrand Jr., J (Ed.). 1983. The Audubon Society Master Guide to Birding Volume 1: Loons to Sandpipers. Alfred A. Knopf. New York. USA. 447 pp.
- Harrington, BA, Hagan, JM & LE Leddy. 1988. Site fidelity and survival differences between two groups of new world red knots (Calidris canutus). The Auk 105: 439-445.
- Kale II, HW & DS Maehr. 1990. Florida's Birds. Pineapple Press. Sarasota, FL. USA. 288 pp.
- Niles, LJ, Sitters, HP, Dey, AD, Atkinson, PW, Baker, AJ, and 17 others. 2008. Status of the Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) in the Western Hemisphere. Studies in Avian Biology No. 36. Cooper Ornithological Society. 185 pp.
- Paulson, D. 2005. Shorebirds of North America: A Photographic Guide. Princeton Univ. Press. Princeton, NJ. USA. 361 pp.
- Peterson, RT. 1980. A Field Guide to the Birds: A Completely New Guide to All the Birds of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin. Boston, MA. USA. 384 pp.
- Terres, JK. 1980. The Audubon Society Encyclopedia of North American Birds. Alfred A. Knopf. New York. USA. 1109 pp.
- USFWS. 2010. The red knot (Calidris canutus rufa). U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Online at http://www.fws.gov/northeast/redknot/ (Date accessed 08/12/2010).
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