Red knots in the western hemisphere complete one of the longest annual migrations in the avian world, breeding in the central Canadian Arctic and traveling southward to winter mainly in Brazil (Diaz et al. 2005; Niles et al.2008). During migration, birds may stopover in many locations, including California, the Gulf coasts of Texas and Florida, and along the Atlantic coast of the U.S. from Florida to Maine.Indian River Lagoon (India River Lagoon) Distribution: Wintering populations of red knots have been documented mostly from the northern India River Lagoon, including the Kennedy Space Center and the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) (Niles et al. 2008). Birds are found on tidal flats in the lagoon and in the swash zone of sandy beaches exposed to the coastal waters of the adjacent Atlantic Ocean (e.g. Paulson 2005; Niles 2008).
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- Diaz, JI, Cremonte, F, Navone, GT & S Laurenti. 2005. Adults and larvae of Skrjabinocerca canutus n. sp. (Nematoda: Acuariidae) from Calidris canutus rufa (Aves: Scolopacidae) on the southern Southwest Atlantic coast of South America. Syst. Parasitol. 60: 113-123.
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- Harrington, BA, Hagan, JM & LE Leddy. 1988. Site fidelity and survival differences between two groups of new world red knots (Calidris canutus). The Auk 105: 439-445.
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- Niles, LJ, Sitters, HP, Dey, AD, Atkinson, PW, Baker, AJ, and 17 others. 2008. Status of the Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) in the Western Hemisphere. Studies in Avian Biology No. 36. Cooper Ornithological Society. 185 pp.
- Paulson, D. 2005. Shorebirds of North America: A Photographic Guide. Princeton Univ. Press. Princeton, NJ. USA. 361 pp.
- Peterson, RT. 1980. A Field Guide to the Birds: A Completely New Guide to All the Birds of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin. Boston, MA. USA. 384 pp.
- Terres, JK. 1980. The Audubon Society Encyclopedia of North American Birds. Alfred A. Knopf. New York. USA. 1109 pp.
- USFWS. 2010. The red knot (Calidris canutus rufa). U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Online at http://www.fws.gov/northeast/redknot/ (Date accessed 08/12/2010).
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