Calidris canutus rufa is a subspecies of red knot occurring in the western hemisphere. Birds are characterized by a stocky body, a short black bill, dark olive to gray legs, and white rump coloration that does not extend up the back (Terres 1980; Paulson 2005). Plumage and body coloration varies with age and season, and descriptions are divided accordingly below. Breeding Adult The face and underparts are reddish, with brownish black or mottled black and white markings on the majority of the body. The belly is marked with variable amounts of white, and the posterior sides and undertail bear sparse black bars. Males are generally more colorful than females, with more red coloration on the upperparts, smaller white patches on the belly and fewer bar markings on the breast (Peterson 1980; Terres 1980; Paulson 2005). Non-breeding Adult Plumage is white or light brown below, with gray-brown darkly streaked upperparts. Legs are greenish and paler than those of breeding adults (Peterson 1980; Terres 1980; Paulson 2005). Juvenile Legs are greenish and often paler than those of the adult forms. Plumage coloration is similar to non-breeding adults, but with the breast often more prominently marked with fine brown streaks instead of dots. Younger juveniles may have buff underparts (Peterson 1980; Terres 1980; Paulson 2005).
- Farrand Jr., J (Ed.). 1983. The Audubon Society Master Guide to Birding Volume 1: Loons to Sandpipers. Alfred A. Knopf. New York. USA. 447 pp.
- Kale II, HW & DS Maehr. 1990. Florida's Birds. Pineapple Press. Sarasota, FL. USA. 288 pp.
- Paulson, D. 2005. Shorebirds of North America: A Photographic Guide. Princeton Univ. Press. Princeton, NJ. USA. 361 pp.
- Peterson, RT. 1980. A Field Guide to the Birds: A Completely New Guide to All the Birds of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin. Boston, MA. USA. 384 pp.
- Terres, JK. 1980. The Audubon Society Encyclopedia of North American Birds. Alfred A. Knopf. New York. USA. 1109 pp.
- Cremonte, F. 2004. Life cycle and geographic distribution of the gymnophallid Bartolius pierrei (Digenea) on the Patagonian coast, Argentina. J. Nat. Hist. 38: 1591-1604.
- Diaz, JI, Cremonte, F, Navone, GT & S Laurenti. 2005. Adults and larvae of Skrjabinocerca canutus n. sp. (Nematoda: Acuariidae) from Calidris canutus rufa (Aves: Scolopacidae) on the southern Southwest Atlantic coast of South America. Syst. Parasitol. 60: 113-123.
- Harrington, BA, Hagan, JM & LE Leddy. 1988. Site fidelity and survival differences between two groups of new world red knots (Calidris canutus). The Auk 105: 439-445.
- Niles, LJ, Sitters, HP, Dey, AD, Atkinson, PW, Baker, AJ, and 17 others. 2008. Status of the Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) in the Western Hemisphere. Studies in Avian Biology No. 36. Cooper Ornithological Society. 185 pp.
- USFWS. 2010. The red knot (Calidris canutus rufa). U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Online at http://www.fws.gov/northeast/redknot/ (Date accessed 08/12/2010).
No one has provided updates yet.