As mentioned above, five other pipefishes are found in the IRL. Of these, one is a long-snout species like S. louisianae. The dusky pipefish, S. floridae, is generally smaller than S. louisianae, at a maximum length of 25 cm (Robins & Ray 1986). The body is olive-brown and variably mottled without districts bands. The dorsal fin is usually located from the 2nd trunk ring to the 4th or 5th tail ring. Other fin ray and meristic counts are as follows: dorsal fin rays = 26-34; trunk rings = 17-18; and tail rings = 30-38 (Robins & Ray 1986). The commonly seen gulf pipefish, S. scovelli, is a short-snout species only reaching 7.5 cm in length. Regional Occurrence & Habitat Preference: The range of the chain pipefish extends from Virginia to the Caribbean coast of Mexico, Jamaica, Bermuda, and the Gulf of Mexico. However, this species is reported to be absent from the Bahamas (Robins & Ray 1986). Most populations of S. louisianae inhabit seagrass beds, marsh areas (Kanouse et al. 2006) and floating mats of the brown algae Sargassum natans and S. fluitans (Wells & Rooker 2004).
- Robins, CR & GC Ray. 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Co. New York. USA. 354 pp.
- Dawson, CE. 1972. Nektonic pipefishes (Syngnathidae) from the Gulf of Mexico off Mississippi. Copeia. 1972: 844-848.
- Herald, ES. 1942. Three new pipefishes from the Atlantic coast of North and South America with a key to the Atlantic American species. Stanford Ichthyol. Bull. 2: 125-134.
- Hildebrand, HH. 1954. A study of the brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus Ives) grounds in the western Gulf of Mexico. Publ. Ist. Mar. Sci. Univ. Texas. 3: 233-366.
- Hildebrand, HH. 1955. A study of the fauna of the pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum Burkenroad) grounds in the Gulf of Campeche. Publ. Ist. Mar. Sci. Univ. Texas. 4: 169-232.
- Joseph, EB & RW Yerger. 1956. The fishes of Alligator Harbor, Florida, with notes on their natural history. Florida State Univ. Stud. 22: 111-156.
- Kanouse, S, La Peyre, MK & JA Nyman. 2006. Nekton use of Ruppia maritima and non-vegetated bottom habitat types within brackish marsh ponds. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 327: 61-69.
- Monteiro, NM, Almada, VC & MN Vieira. 2005. Implications of different brood pouch structures in syngnathid reproduction. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. UK. 85: 1235-1241.
- Wells, RJD & JR Rooker. 2004. Spatial and temporal patterns of habitat use by fishes associated with Sargassum mats in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Bull. Mar. Sci. 74: 81-99.
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